Saturday, 28 December 2013

The Story of Donald's Corner



‘When you were growing up in Hamilton’, I asked  memoir writer Margaret Colditz, ‘where was the money?’



‘The money’, she responded without a second’s pause, ‘was in Donald’s Corner’.


George Donald [1] was what we’d call today ‘a mover and a shaker’. In late 19th century Hamilton, he had his finger on the pulse in business, civic administration, school and church. With that remarkable combination of vision, persuasiveness and practical skills, it is likely he also had charisma. He died aged 56 in 1887.


We first met George Donald in the post 'The Making of Hamilton' - he was Hamilton's  first Mayor.




George Donald (1831-1887)
Photograph courtesy of Newcastle Region Library



It was his drive and determination that made the Incorporation of Hamilton a reality. This meant Hamilton could levy rates, using the collected funds to improve the environment and circumstances in which people lived. We know he must have been an important civic leader, because there is a thoroughfare named for him, Donald Street, and an imposing fountain in his honour in Gregson Park.


What else can we glean about the man, his influence and his power in Hamilton’s earliest days?


George Donald was Scottish, like a large proportion of early immigrants to this locality. He arrived here in 1859 at the age of 28 to work in the mines. Seizing an opportunity, he became manager of the Hamilton Cooperative Store, an offshoot of the Borehole Cooperative Society.



Hamilton Branch Cooperative Store
Photograph by Ralph Snowball, courtesy Cultural Collections,
 University of Newcastle



The Cooperative Store inadvertently provided George Donald with the on-the-job training needed to set up on his own. In 1865, just 6 years after his arrival, Donald established a grocery store on the corner of Beaumont and Tudor Streets. This would have been competition for the Cooperative Store.


Donald did well, later adding an ironmonger and chemist to his  family grocery business.



Donald’s Chemist and Ironmonger
Corner of Beaumont and Tudor Streets, Hamilton
Photograph from the Lynn Family, courtesy Newcastle Region Library



George Donald's land extended across two sites on Tudor Street, between Beaumont and Murray Streets. Over time, as evident in the photograph below, the building on the landmark corner site was extended and remodelled, with other businesses leasing space.




Tram outside Donald's chemist, corner Beaumont and Tudor Streets, Hamilton, 
June 10, 1950
Photograph courtesy of Greg and Sylvia Ray, 'Destination Newcastle


George Donald and his wife Margaret had seven sons and three daughters. With a growing family, George Donald was active in Hamilton Public School affairs. Clearly not afraid of over commitment, he served for periods of time as Secretary of the School Board, and of the Mechanics Institute.


The Presbyterian connection


A striking example of George Donald’s drive and initiative was the impetus he provided for the formation of the Hamilton Scots Kirk. [3]


While a small wooden structure built in 1859 on the corner of Denison and Milton Streets was thought to be the first purpose built church in Hamilton, the Presbyterians worshipping there experienced scandal and schism. That’s another story. Between 1866 and 1868, the church was left without a Minister.


Many Hamilton Presbyterians still travelled to churches in Newcastle on Sundays. In an interesting gesture, the AA Company provided free horse drawn trolleys as transport for Presbyterians and Methodists. When this free service ceased in 1880, George Donald decided to take action.


No doubt using the lobbying and administrative skills acquired as three times Mayor (1872-76), he successfully pursued Hamilton’s claim as a separate Presbyterian parish. By 1882, the parish had installed its own minister, Reverend William Gray. When the old church in Denison Street proved inadequate, George Donald was instrumental in securing the present block on the corner of Tudor and Murray Street for the new church. On a trip to England he negotiated with the AA Company for an exchange of the former site for the new block of land.


The foundation stone for the new Scots Kirk was laid on 29 January, 1887 just several weeks before his death aged just 56. Although suffering ill health dating from his last term as Mayor, George Donald was able to make a visible and enduring difference to his community. A memorial plaque in his honour is on the southern wall of the Kirk.


The Scots Kirk is modelled on the design of Dunfermline Abbey in Scotland, where George Donald was born. On the outside, it appears a modest traditional church building of its time. Inside, be prepared to be surprised by the drama and beauty of ten stained glass windows around its walls, with Rose, Alpha and Omega windows above the choir gallery . [4]



Collage of stained glass windows in the Scots Kirk, Hamilton
Photograph courtesy of http://www.scotskirk.org.au



And then the earthquake...


Although the details are obscure, it appears that after his sudden death, members of the large Donald family continued the businesses George Donald had established. The photograph below, taken sometime before the 1989 earthquake, shows a substantial corner building and diversity of tenants.



Remember, George Donald had started out on this site in 1865.







Donald’s Corner before the 1989 earthquake (undated)
Photograph from the collection of Mavis Ebbott





The Newcastle earthquake in 1989 severely damaged the buildings on Donald’s corner  but the Newcastle Council prevaricated on its demolition. Eventually, approval was granted. Before the earthquake, occupants of the original two storey buildings had included Donald’s Chemist, a milk bar, the Etna restaurant, a florist, dress shop, barber and estate agent. [7]



 The Niagara Café connection

We know that by 1989, Bob Donald was operating the original Donald's Chemist. When he began to look for new premises, he found ready vendors close by in the Mitsios brothers, Con and John. They had run the Niagara Cafe on the opposite corner from 1956, for 35 years.


The Niagara Cafe is another Hamilton icon, remembered by many Novocastrians  from as early as the 1920s to the 1980s. It was founded by the Karanges family - Greek immigrants now with five generations spread across Australia.[5] An excellent article about the Karanges family can be read here.

Memoirist Margaret Colditz – and many other Novocastrians – remember the early days of the Niagara Cafe. She writes:

‘Peach melbas and banana splits were sold in summer, hot malted milk in winter. Milkshakes hadn’t yet arrived’.[6]


Milkshakes came eventually, however – who doesn’t remember the anticipation of taking possession of one of those fingertip-chilling aluminium containers?


Above the Niagara Cafe was a ‘gambling den’. One of at least three illegal betting spots on Beaumont Street (another was at the Mook family’s fruit shop and home – read more here) it was largely left alone by police. Interestingly, it was not until off-course betting became legal through TABs that police began to crack down on illegal SP betting.


When he relocated his pharmacy across Tudor Street, Bob Donald kept one of the cafe booths as a tribute to the building’s heritage. The booth was eventually moved because of space demands, but the step remained as part of the front entrance until half was tiled over to make a ramp for accessibility. Craig Jeffriess  shared this local history about the Niagara Café on the Lost Newcastle Facebook site. The step was white marble and had 'Niagara Cafe' inscribed on it.


 A coffee shop has now returned to the corner, a franchise of the popular Gloria Jean’s.


Northeast corner of Beaumont and Tudor Streets, once the site of the Niagara Café and Bob Donald’s All Night Pharmacy (2014)
Photograph by Craig Smith 



Back on the original ‘Donald’s Corner’, there were no takers for this landmark site throughout the 1990s. The site lay vacant for a decade.



A photograph of a wedding at Scots Kirk shows the vacant block in the background
Photograph from the collection of Robyn Jeffriess



It took the initiative of three local businessmen - Steve Foteff, Van Jovanovski and George Yanis - to give this prime space a new life. As he travelled to other cities, George Yanis had noticed how apartments were emerging as an alternative to hotel rooms. He had already built a block in Donald Street. Read George's family story here.


Nearly ten years after the earthquake, Newcastle City Council approved plans for a new apartment building, the first of its kind in the Hunter region. The original plans had been for three storeys but a Council officer pressed for five for the prime corner site. Five storeys were approved.



The Boulevard on Beaumont was built in 2000 across two sites on 1049 square metres of commercial space. It offers 32 suites - studio and two bedroom – each with kitchen, laundry, and sitting area. A four star facility with bar and restaurant, it was refurbished in 2010 and is now a part of the Quality Suites hotel group.



Quality Suites Boulevard on Beaumont
Southeast corner of Beaumont and Tudor Streets, 
known as Donald’s Corner (2014)
Photograph by Matthew Ward



Once again, after devastation and a decade of not knowing its future, Donald’s corner has been restored to its status as a Hamilton landmark.




An elevated perspective of Donald's Corner
Photograph  from the collection of Mavis Ebbott





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[1] My acknowledgement for much of the factual information about George Donald to research by local historian Peter Murray. Refer Murray, Peter: From Borehole to Hamilton Jubilee 1848 – 1921. Self published (2006
[2] Colditz, M: My Beloved Beaumont Street. Manuscript (1990)
[3] Murray, Peter: From Borehole to Hamilton Jubilee 1848 – 1921. Self published (2006)
[4] The Scots Kirk is on the corner of Tudor and Murray Street, Hamilton. It is open to the public every Wednesday between 12 noon and 2.00 pm.
[5] Newcastle Museum, Exhibition on Beaumont Street.
[6] Colditz, M: My Beloved Beaumont Street. Manuscript (1990)
[7]  Newcastle Herald Tues April 21, 1998.

Sunday, 8 December 2013

A Mine Manager's Retreat - the AA House






Status is having a house on the crest of a hill, fireplaces in every room, and your own underground water tank  so you don’t have to queue to draw water with the wives of miners.




Status can also mean responsibility - lying awake, desperate for sleep, dreading the first light. Imagine that your boss, Superintendent of the AA Company, [1] has commissioned you to bring in ‘scab labour’ from Victoria and South Australia, and to destroy the coal miners union, once and for all.




John Barron Winship was the third senior AA Co. employee (the Viewer, or manager, of collieries) to live in the compact but elegantly proportioned 19th century residence on Cameron’s Hill. 1862 was a big year for industrial unrest and conflict in the mining settlements that were to become Hamilton. He would have had a multitude of sleepless nights.






AA Company house with lime wash over brick on exterior walls (2013)






Winship had had an early triumph, striking “good, clean” coal in 1861. His predecessor, Robert Whytte, had had a terrible time trying to prove a coal seam existed. Winship was the gambler sitting down at a poker machine just after the previous occupant has left, broke and in despair. At the first pull, the machine spews out everything it’s been holding onto. Robert Whytte had been dismissed in January, 1860. Winship got the payout.



Winship’s luck was not to hold. First, though, the house.


It’s called the AA Company house, in a battle-axe block behind 195 Denison Street, Hamilton. The gate is secured with a mighty lock.






Notice on the entry gate to the AA Company house





Owned by the Newcastle City Council since 1995, the most obvious anachronism at first sight is the gleaming silver 21st century Colorbond roof. A heritage viewing panel allows sight of the original timber shingles.



AA Company house showing original timber shingles



The condition of the house is described in the Council’s heritage assessment as
fair to poor, suffering dry rot, termite damage, rising damp and other problems due to age and long years of neglect. [2]  Although the house has been opened to the public on occasion in the past, its condition is now considered too delicate. Sarah Cameron, the Council’s Heritage Officer, opened it for Jenny Pritchard, fifth generation descendant of the previous owners, the Little family, and me.


For almost 140 years, the Little family, and their descendants were resident in/owners of this house  - from 1876 until it was purchased by Council in 1995. Jenny Pritchard grew up with her grandparents and parents in an adjacent house at 197 Denison Street, built in 1937 on land that had been subdivided from the original AA Company house block. Her great grandparents William and Alice Little  lived in the AA Company house, William having purchased it from the Company in 1914.


Walking through this old home with someone who had grown up running in and out of it as a child breathed  precious vitality into its desolate, silent spaces.


The large block, with its lawns, fruit trees, flower and vegetable gardens and chicken coop, was sub divided around 1920. Long since cleared of any trace of the self sufficient lifestyle of its early occupants, the much smaller yard is neatly maintained. Newcastle City Council has connected power to the house, stabilised and repaired the roof, had damaged windows reglazed and doors repaired. An archiving and cataloguing project has been completed, with 108 items identified of heritage interest, including furniture, linoleums, wallpapers and soft furnishings.


Jenny Pritchard, 5th generation descendant of the Little family (2013)
Jenny is in the yard of the AA Company house  where as a child, she climbed her favourite peach tree to watch the Broadmeadow races from her perch






On Entering...


As we walk in, I am captivated by the narrow, concrete floored verandah with a decorative timber valance.








The verandah ceiling is rustic, with exposed timber beams, battens and roof shingles.










Then I see the front door, with four glass panels etched with fleur-de-lys, and an impressive knocker. This was status!











A long narrow entrance hall extends before me, and I immediately begin to watch where I step. Sarah has switched on the lights, which is a great help.











In his poem ‘The Halflife of Coal’ written for the 2010 Exhibition Brought to Light [3]  multi award winning Australian poet Mark Tredinnick writes:


Down the hall time has passed violently at least once –
The earthquake of ’89 or subsidence has opened a seam


In the plaster wide enough to mine.











As I pick my way carefully through the rooms, I am struck by their spaciousness and high ceilings. I had imagined low doorways, and small oppressive rooms.


Every ceiling is different - lath and plaster, corrugated iron sheet with timber mouldings, pressed metal, and fibrous plaster board. Sitting and dining room ceilings are coffered, with sunken panels.












Not all have survived –

                                                      ......and here the ceiling slumps
Between its battens, out of its mind with missing the child, perhaps. [4]










There is a pantry, and the adjoining kitchen is huge, compared with my imagining…












In the kitchen

There’s a tap without a basin, and no one stopped the newspapers

Till late September ’65.[5]





Floors are timber board, with several layers of linoleum. Their patterns can be seen here. Newspapers used to be placed under new  lino, leaving a treasure trove of history to be discovered by future generations of renovators. Old newspapers are scattered in the kitchen but no treasures are to be found. Anything of historical value has been removed for storage in the Newcastle Museum. Some items been lost, custodians unaware of their heritage story.











Curtains and wallpaper are still there, in poor condition but intact.









 





Deterioration is everywhere.














                                    ...the house feels as empty

As a tomb. [6]





The large drawing room has been set up with a historical display but the posters are faded and out dated.










Fireplaces abound. In the parlour, bedrooms and dining room they have cast iron inserts, with surround and mantles of timber, and decorative hearths of ceramic tiles.




Jenny Pritchard in the drawing room (2013)









Outside again
The bathroom/laundry outhouse is a free standing timber building clad in sawn weatherboards. It is accessed from the kitchen.




 
       




Towards the end of World War II, when Jenny’s parents married, they moved to live with her mother’s parents, Dixon and Clarice Little at 197 Denison Street. When Jenny and her sister were born, there were three generations living in the same house.





Jenny’s father Donald McCourt used the outhouse next door as his den – a retreat from hectic family life in quite a small house. ‘The den had carpet, comfy chairs, a stereo and books,’ Jenny tells me.





The toilet is on the southern side of the house, oddly opposite to the bathroom, but sensibly near the bedrooms.











Back on the front verandah, I see the big lock hasn’t deterred everyone. Names have been scrawled in the dust on the four-pane double hung timber windows, which are deteriorating.









Along the veranda, the bricks have been painted and many layers can be seen here.









  In his poem, 'The Halflife of Coal', Mark Tredinnick wonders  -


 How many women have run their hands like rivers


Along these pitted bricks incarnadine, on their way
To the well out back?




An underground tank  providing the family with their private water supply is preserved in the back yard of the house next door. Water from the roof would have been directed into it from the roof. Peering carefully through the fence, we are surprised at how large it is.




A metal sun hood protects the attic from the strong northern sun.











Jenny's childhood playhouse  is now out of bounds because of the precarious stairs.




Era of the mine managers



Can a house go on a journey?



Why was it brought into existence? What befell it, over the years? Who loved it, and who abandoned it?



The original cottage was built in 1849/50 for the Overman of the AA Company’s mining works at Hamilton. The Company wanted a supervisor resident on the spot, not three miles away at their Newcastle operations. The downside was that the managers and their families were quite isolated, especially from their peers.



The first resident of the house was James Lindsay, from 1849 until at least 1854. As Overman (today the equivalent to a deputy), Lindsay was  employed to oversee the day to day operations of the collieries, including the newly opened D Pit.  The D Pit was between Denison and Veda Streets, more or less opposite St Peter’s Anglican Church. It became known as The Borehole.



The house was within easy sight of D Pit, fronting the track known as Pit Row, separated from the workers slab huts opposite by a high picket fence with double gates. We stood on the front veranda and imagined looking down at the motley collection of huts.




AA Company's Borehole No. 2 Pit, Hamilton
(Courtesy Newcastle Region Library)


In the 2010 Exhibition Brought to Light, Adelaide visual artist and photographer Darren Siwes restaged and enlivened this imagining through enacting a scene of neighbouring miners crowding against the separating fence, pushing against the mine manager’s privacy as a figure hurries inside the front door. Darren’s photographs are eerily haunting – look them up here.


Although originally just four rooms around a central corridor when it was built in 1849/50, the house was substantial and ornate enough to set it well above the average workers’ housing. Read more about miner’s living conditions  here.



Lindsay was a skilled mechanic who planned and supervised the re-laying of the tramway which led from the Borehole to the Company’s coal staithes at Newcastle. That project alone would have given him plenty of sleepless nights. In addition, he managed to keep the C Pit in Newcastle in production for two years longer than expected.

Lindsay Street, Hamilton is named for James Lindsay.

A sturdy wheelbarrow sits patiently beside the front door. Jenny Pritchard recalls her mother passing on her understanding that the wheelbarrow was an original, from C Pit. Perhaps it was a souvenir acquired by James Lindsay – if not from C Pit, then most likely from the nearby D Pit. I am glad to see it is still there. When I drive along Lindsay Street, that’s what I’ll think of – the lonely vigil of a wheelbarrow, on guard since perhaps 1850 – could it really be 165 years old?




Wheelbarrow thought to have been from C Pit - perhaps 165 years old




Robert Whyte was believed to have followed James Lindsay in the house, possibly living there from 1858. As Viewer, or Manager of the Company's collieries, Whyte was determined to modernise mining practices. His big challenge was to prove the existence of coal by drilling a new colliery at No 1 Pit, which was to be his showcase. The first shaft flooded; Whytte struggled with old engines, inadequate equipment and tools. The pressure on him was immense; especially since the top man, AA Company Governor Edward Hamilton was visiting for five weeks at the time.




In May 1858, Whyte tried a new location – No 2 Borehole. After heroic efforts, and fearing that the total collapse of the shaft was imminent, he cut his losses and suspended drilling.




Whyte’s apparent failure led to his dismissal early in1860. 



If Whyte had bad dreams, his successor, James Barron Winship, would have had nightmares.



Winship took up drilling at the No. 2 Borehole, and persisting single mindedly, struck a good seam of coal in 1861.




What followed had its roots in a change in the balance of power among coal proprietors, as the AA Company lost its monopoly; both the supply of coal and its price were a rollercoaster; and the coal miners unions were flexing their muscles in revolt against pay and conditions.




The zeal Winship had already displayed in drilling despite the risks was now transferred to destroying the unions on behalf of his employer. He became public enemy No. 1 in the settlement, and would truly have needed his retreat.




Too long and complex a story to tell here, it includes strikes (one of them lasting two months), women protesting and setting up barricades  (‘the feminine riots’), and the importing of ‘scab labour’ from interstate and overseas as strike breakers.


Angry and heart breaking scenes of miners and their families being evicted from their poor dwellings to make way for scab workers were common.


Anyone who sympathised with the unions was prosecuted.



Winship took his prosecution role very seriously. One story tells how he pursued two Adelaide men who had absconded from the mines “by locomotive, car and on foot,” until he captured them, arrested them with the help of local police, and had them brought back in chains.



Yet he was a contributing  civic citizen, being on the Hamilton School Board, and instrumental in getting an entirely new building and teachers residence in 1871.




Denison Street [8]used to be called Winship Street. I guess Winship was doing his bosses’ bidding, but he could hardly have been popular.



The first kitchen of the AA House was probably detached, and it is no surprise that a new kitchen was built in 1861, and possibly the back verandah. James Winship’s wife would have been the first to benefit from these welcome additions, especially the kitchen. With her husband at war with the workforce, she would have welcomed such consolations.



Winship resigned in 1876, and subsequently drowned.




Era of the Engineers



After Winship had resigned in 1876, the AA Company house was used to accommodate Company engineering staff. Thus began almost 140 years of association with the Little family. Over these years, a kind of campus for the extended family developed over the sub divisions of the original block.




Dixon Little was a highly respected engineer with a background in major water supply projects in England. He followed Winship’s occupancy of the AA House, with his wife Mary.





Dixon Little (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)





Mary Little (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)

  




Dixon Little was to work for the AA Company for 16  years. He superintended underground engineering operations at the time of the tragic fall in H Pit, in which 11 workers died in 1889. On his retirement, he was presented with an Illuminated Address for his dedicated service to the AA Company, and  a purse of sovereigns as a token of the respect in which he was held.





Illuminated Address presented to Dixon Little by the AA Company
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)
Double click on the photo to enlarge and read it




Dixon Street, Hamilton, is named after Dixon Little.




Interestingly, William Little, Dixon’s son and Jenny Pritchard’s great grandfather, took over not only his father’s position as an engineer with the AA Company, but also the residence. Some renovations were made at this time.





William Little (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)




William and Alice Little were in residence when further additions of a dining room/pantry were made in 1899/1900, and a large sitting room created by opening up two existing rooms. At this time the house virtually doubled in size.




William Little purchased the house from the AA Company in 1914, as it became surplus to Company needs. Subsequently, the land was divided into three blocks, with new residences built for family members on either side of the original house.




In 1920 the interior of the AA House was redecorated, and the bathroom/laundry constructed. How had the families managed without these facilities up until 1920?



In 1933, William Little retired.




After William died in 1945, his wife Alice and son Charles continued to live in the AA House. Alice died in 1948 – Jenny was just 2 years old, but remembers her great grandmother playing with her on the front verandah of the house.





Alice Little (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)




Charles, William’s son, who had never married, was killed in 1963:



And the last life lived here stopped in 1963. Charles


Milligan (sic) is killed and the house stands unused: [9]




The AA House remained vacant for 30 years, owned by William Little’s granddaughter and Jenny’s mother, Mrs Naomi McCourt. No one knew quite what to do with the house, but the family cared for it as best they could.




The future of the AA House was to change radically when Newcastle resident and local historian David Campbell identified the heritage value of the house and convinced the Newcastle City Council of its significance. Then began a period of dialogue with Mrs McCourt, which finally saw the house saved and transferred to public ownership. That is another story.




In the meantime, Mrs McCourt cared for her aging father Dixon Allan Little, with whom she had shared a house her whole life.





Dixon A Little (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)





After Dixon A Little  died in 1992, aged 100, Naomi decided she wanted her own home at last. She had a new house built at the front of 195 Denison Street, the AA House becoming a battle axe block. Sadly, she was only to enjoy it for 5 years before having to move into a care facility. Naomi McCourt died in 2010.





Naomi McCourt (n.d.)
(From the personal collection of Jenny Pritchard)



What Next?


For Jenny Pritchard, the AA House was always part of her life, until she qualified as a teacher and left Newcastle.



Jenny Pritchard tells me:

‘As a grew older, I used to say – this house would be a good museum. But others were not aware of its importance until it was almost derelict and found by David Campbell.’



There is a Conservation Plan for the House, but Newcastle City Council is experiencing severe financial constraints right now. It is not likely much more will be done for the house, in the short term. The good news is that the House is not on the list of Council assets up for sale.



‘I felt quite sad at the state of deterioration inside,’ Jenny says. ‘I really do hope that restoration can continue.’




Perhaps if someone came along who was willing to bring life back to this unique house, with full regard to its heritage, Council might be willing to have a conversation. It is, after all, considered to be one of the oldest intact colliery structures in Australia.




Mark Tredinnick has the last word, for now -


The past is in here somewhere: for there’s no present without a past,
And here we are. To forget the past, it is said, is to plant cut flowers

In your garden, and plainly there’s no future in that.[10]















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Acknowledgements


Sarah Cameron, Heritage Officer, Newcastle City Council.


Jenny Pritchard, 5th generation descendant of the Little family.

David Campbell, Heritage Consultant.


Brought to Light, 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre.


Mark Tredinnick, for his poems published as part of this Exhibition.





NSW Department of Environment and Heritage – Statement of Significance – AA House. This includes substantial references to David Campbell’s independent research, reproduced in the Conservation Management Plan, Suters Architects.



Peter Murray, From Borehole to Hamilton Jubilee, 1858 – 1921, Self published, 2006.

Unless attributed, all photographs by Ruth Cotton.





[1] The Australian Agricultural Company, owner of lands and coal mines in Newcastle and the Hunter.


[2]http://www.newcastle.nsw.gov.au/about_newcastle/history_and_heritage/attractions_and_sites/aa_co_house


[3] http://www.thelockup.org.au/storage/Brought%20to%20Light_Web.pdf


[4] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre.


[5] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre


[6] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre


[7] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre


[8] Sir William Denison, after whom Denison Street was named, was Governor of NSW from 1855-1861.


[9] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre


[10] Mark Tredinnick, The Halflife of Coal, published in 2010 Exhibition of the Newcastle Lock-Up Cultural Centre.